Development of the SWIFTDevelopment of the SWIFT- - A Tailless Foot- Launched Sailplaneby Ilan Kroo and Eric Beckmanwith Brian Robbins, Steve Morris, and Brian Porterversion first published in Hang Gliding Jan. The SWIFT is a high performance foot- launched sailplane, designed. It takes off and lands like a hang glider, yet maintains.
Der Astir III ist eine Weiterentwicklung des Astir II. Im Gegensatz zu den Vorg. Bei diesen Varianten wurde im Jahr 2001 die VNE durch eine technische Mitteilung des Herstellers vor
Although it is a fully- cantilevered rigid wing with aerodynamic. This article summarizes the design, construction, and. History. This sailplane represents the marriage of two projects with similar goals. In January of 1. 98.
Brian. Robbins, Craig Catto, and Eric Beckman set out to build a new hang glider. As Bright. Star. Hang Gliders, Brian and Eric, with Craig's help, began the development of. Odyssey, a rigid wing hang glider. The Odyssey utilized a molded . The first prototype was finished in March of 1. Brian Porter joined Bright. Star as a team pilot.
Hawaiian Gardens, California – Hispanic Gangs Home > Hispanic Gangs > Hawaiian Gardens Hawaiian Gardens is the smallest city in Los Angeles County. It occupies only 1 sq. It is bordered by Long Beach, Lakewood, and it resides on the border of. Efternavne 1500-1800 Danmark har sandsynligvis europ Standard and hybrid turbocharger catalogue Alfa Romeo Year Engine Engine code Turbo details Turbo part no Gasket A/WOEM part no / BHP 7 75 1986-88 AR06134/58 TB0353 G1.8L P 466858-0001 195490809000 W 14 145 JTD - 108HP 2000-01 AR37101.
U. S. Despite this. Two hours South of Bright. Star, at Stanford University, work had been. Odyssey project. Ilan Kroo. Stanford to offer course. Brian thought that perhaps Ilan and Steve could improve.
Odyssey's airfoils somewhat; Ilan and Steve thought that Brian might. As Brian. talked about the Odyssey and Ilan described the aerodynamic design options. Brian could. build it.
Four months later, in December of 1. SWIFT took to the. Marin County. Figure 1. First prototype. Aerodynamic Design. Sizing and Performance Limits.
The design of the SWIFT began with a study of the requirements for cross- country. Ilan had written an article in a 1. Hang Gliding Magazine. Dick Johnson. One of the conclusions of that study was that interthermal. At that time, only.
Today, although. flights approaching 3. One of the factors limiting the flight. Thermals are commonly encountered. Thus, extended cross- country soaring requires not only a good.
This is easily. done by making large span sailplanes with high wing loading. But if the. glider is to be foot- launched, it must be light (span not too large) and.
More refined studies of Johnson's data and baragraph. George Worthington's Mitchell wing flights in the Reno area. The following target performance figures were established. Target Performance for Foot- Launched Sailplane. Minimum Sink Rate in 1. Maximum L/D: 2. 0: 1. L/D at 6. 0kts: 1.
Stalling speed: no higher than existing hang gliders for safe foot- launching. Weight: less than 9. Exceptional controllability for safe flight at low speeds. The fourth constraint meant that even with large flaps, the wing area. With this constraint, the third goal would be. The sink rate polars in figure 2 illustrate.
The figure also shows how the predicted sink rate of the SWIFT compares. Schweizer 1- 2. 6 sailplane at speeds up to about 6. Figure 2. Performance Comparison.
Configuration Studies. Unless one does something very wrong, the performance of a glider is. The selection. of the configuration, whether conventional, canard, tailless, or something. In the development of the SWIFT, several possible. The results indicated very small performance.
The directional stability. The tailless design was statically- balanced, compact. The combination of sweep. The. penalties associated with too much twist were eliminated by changing the. One of these. trim surfaces is a large (4. When deflected down for higher. It may be. deflected downward as much as 4.
This use of the inboard flap surface for pitch trim gives the. At the risk of confusion with the long line of Swift.
SWIFT Layout. Stability and Control. As anyone who has ever tried to fly a very stiff, 3. The large tip chord provides additional. It also gives the elevons.
The use of aerodynamic. The stalling characteristics are. DC- 9. The SWIFT's winglets are fixed surfaces, not rudders. They increase the.
These surfaces, in combination with the fixed. The size of the. winglets and elevons were determined from computer simulations of the glider's.
Steve. and Ilan. Figure 4. Photo of RC Model over Stanford. Airfoil Development. Airfoils were designed by the Stanford group especially for the SWIFT. They make. use of laminar flow over the first 2. This amount. of laminar flow was selected based on the idea that the first 2. The airfoil thickness.
Tests on the first prototype suggested that the strength. The airfoils were redesigned with very thin. Truck- mounted tests of the glider suggest. The airfoil is shown in figure 4, for illustration purposes.
Changes that might benefit high- speed performance might hurt. The. final trade- offs were made by simulating a long cross- coutry flight on the. The simulation included thermal models, inter- thermal. Figure 5. Vortex Lattice Model of Swift.
Structural Design and Construction. The structure of the SWIFT is designed to meet the demanding requirements. The wing structure uses a D- tube covering the first. The prototypes were constructed with an Aluminum. D- tube and mylar covering to reduce costs and one- off construction time. While the prototypes weigh.
Kevlar skins and graphite spar caps. The loads that need to be carried.
Because of the low wing loading and high design. To comply with FAA sailplane.
VNE. Since the maximum speed of this sailplane. The prototypes were. The pilot fairing is another important aspect of the design. Based on. Brian Porter's experience with the Voyager and Odyssey, a fully- enclosed. Lexan surrounding a cage of aluminum. The pilot supports the glider with shoulder straps on the ground.
Mitchell Wing. Flight and Vehicle Testing. The first glider was mounted on Brian Robbin's pickup truck, and was. The glider was free. Apart from. some early separation associated with large flap gaps (eliminated in the. December 1. 98. 9.
Eric and Brian Porter made the first flights from a 5. Marin County. The elevons made control on the ground very easy as the. Despite. the high wing loading of the first glider, take- off was not difficult and. Flights at Mt. Funston on the Northern California coast. Roll response was also not as snappy as Eric would.
The new wing had somewhat larger. The first flights at Ft. Funston proved that it was a big. After 1. 0 or so hours of flying time we were quite happy with the design. But coastal. ridge sites are one thing, real cross- country conditions are another.
So. to determine the wing's performance and controllability, we took it to a. Owens Valley. With a complete pilot fairing. SWIFT took. off at a gross weight of over 3. Horseshoe. Meadows. Pilots began leaping at about 1.
AM, but Eric waited until most. Horseshoe standards. Continuing. north passed Boundary Peak, Eric began to feel hypoxic. When he reached. Minas he was stll at 1. Finding a bit. he lowered the flaps to act as drag producing dive brakes and landed.
The. first Owens Valley SWIFT flight covered about 1. The idea of a true. Concluding Comments - - Future Work. Where do we go from here? The basic aerodynamic characteristics of the. SWIFT have proven very satifactory. Bright. Star Gliders plans to certify.
In the meantime, we will continue. The SWIFT promises to.